The truth is that the [Ainu] people must make much of memory in a land where there is not written language. They must commit everything important to memory. To such a community old traditions are a history, a literature, a philosophy, a science, a scripture, a code. In other words, folk-tales are a learning, a religion, a law – culture itself. In order to live as an independent Ainu, it is necessary to know an outline of the legends and traditions of his community; and especially it is so for those who command others.