The truth of myths

 

FIGURA HN_RIO GRANDE

 

The myths are pre-eminently ‘fictional truths,’ conveying truths important to life, yet fictional to us and sometimes to the Indians. The Santa Clara Tewas of New Mexico introduce some stories with words such as these: ‘In a place that never was, in a time that never was, this did not happen.’

The Nootka Indians of Vancouver Island insist upon the literal truth of stories of how the founder of a kinship group obtained its prerogatives. Those stories are true because the initial adventure did happen and the story has been transmitted ever since in a known chain of succession. But myths can be referred to in English as ‘fairy stories.’ Inheritance, in short, is a historical fact; the truths of myths may be of other kinds.

North America; Dell Hymes, “Notes toward (an understanding of) supreme fictions”, in I know only so far: Essays in Ethnopoetics, Lincoln & London: University of Nebraska Press, 2003, p. 382
Illustration inspired by an indigenous motif from the Rio Grande area
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Once there was and once there wasn’t

zalktis

 

Once there was and once there wasn’t, when the sieve was in the straw, when the camel was a town crier and the cock was a barber, when Allah had many creatures but it was a sin to talk too much…

Turkish; from Warren S. Walker and Ahmet E. Uysal, More Tales Alive in Turkey, Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 1992, p. 154
Illustration inspired by a tradicional Latvian drawing